Learn Earth Science

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From the troposphere to the exosphere, study the atmosphere. Topics include the ozone layer, magnetosphere, and weather.

Geology Science


Geology is the study and science of Earth’s land forms. This includes how they were created, have changed over time, and how they will evolve.

Life Science


Biology works with time, disease, ecosystems, and why we are here today. It also works on different scales like individual atoms to the entire biosphere.

Earth Science Career


If you are interested in a career in environmental science, there are lots of opportunities available. Find out how diverse the field is.

Outer Space


Space is beyond Earth’s atmosphere. It applies the concepts from physics, biology, and geology to explain our planet’s origin and evolution.

Ocean Science

Water Science

Water is all around us. From oceans to freshwater lakes, this field studies everything from deep ocean water life to the flow of currents.



What Is the Stratosphere?

Main highlights of the stratosphere are: (1) The ozone layer absorbs harmful UV light (2) This causes temperature to rise (3) It contains 10% of…



The Biosphere: Life on Earth

The biosphere is the layer of Earth where life exists. You, me, plants, insects bacteria and all living things on land, air and oceans are…


Branches of Earth Science Outline

100+ Branches of Earth Science

Earth scientists need all the *sciences* to understand how the Earth works. This list of 123 branches of Earth Science is the most in-depth you’ll…
Geotechnical Engineer Career

What Do Geotechnical Engineers Do?

Geotechnical Engineers understand the behavior of earth materials. For example, they interpret rock and soil samples to investigate subsurface conditions.


Grand Canyon Age

How Was the Grand Canyon Formed?

Like a stack of pancakes, younger rock layers pile on top of older layers. We use the law of superposition to reveal Earth’s age and…
shield volcano

What is a Shield Volcano?

The name “shield volcano” originated from its Roman shield-like shape. They are broad, flat and can stretch hundreds of miles wide like Mauna Loa in…


What Color Is the Moon

What Color Is the Moon?

The color of the moon is mostly grey. And the lunar maria are dark grey. The 4 most dominant rocks are: mare basalts, breccia, anorthosite…
How Gravity Works

How Gravity Sculpted the Earth

What brings order on Earth is gravity. For all matter, it’s always at work. This is how gravity works for ocean tides, planet formation and…
Venus Facts

10 Planet Venus Facts [Infographic]

Planet Venus neighbors the Earth. It’s the second planet closest the sun. Other facts include its counterclockwise rotation and how it rains sulfuric acid.


global water distribution

How Much Water Is on Earth?

Water is in the ground, on the surface, in the air and in our bodies. But how much global water distribution is in glaciers, groundwater,…
5 oceans earth

What are the 5 Oceans of the World?

Since the year 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) started recognizing 5 oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and Southern Ocean.
Sea Level Rise

How Much Will Sea Level Rise?

As temperatures surge, sea levels rise with it. This is because melting ice sheets add to total water volume. By 2100, water levels could rise…