Geology Geology understands how landforms were created, have changed over time, and how they will evolve. Learn more about the geologic history of Earth and more.EROSIONINSIDE EARTHLAND SURFACEMILESTONESMINERALSTECTONICSTIMELINEVOLCANOES Erosion, Weathering, and Soils Geology | Weathering, Erosion and Soils The Pedosphere: Soil on Earth The pedosphere is like the “skin of Earth”. Just like your skin, it has a thin outer surface. It also has pore spaces and dries out without enough moisture.Soil Nutrients Deficiency and Replenishing5 Soil Formation Factors: How Rocks Weather into DirtBiological Weathering: How Living Things Break Down RocksMass Wasting: Weathering, Erosion and Transport3 Mechanical Weathering Processes that Break Down RocksChemical Weathering: Hydrolysis, Oxidation and Acidic Reactions Inside Earth Earth Tomography: How Seismic Waves Travel Inside EarthWhat is Radioactive Decay Inside Earth?Mantle Convection: Earth’s Plate Tectonic Conveyor Belt5 Asthenosphere Facts: What is the Asthenosphere?Earth Crust: Oceanic Crust vs Continental Crust Geology | Inside Earth Inside Earth: The Crust, Mantle and Core All planets have layers. Inside Earth, we have a crust, core and mantle. Imagine a team of drillers who set out to drill a hole to the other side of Earth. Land Surface Geology | Land Surface 5 Sources of Alternative Energy The world is rapidly transitioning towards a clean energy future. We can switch to alternative sources of energy to fuel our cars and homes.What is Permafrost? Why It’s Like the Glue for Rock and SoilHow Do Glaciers Form?Mountain Building: How Mountains are MadeWhat is Isostatic Rebound? Milestone Events Pangea Ultima: Meet Earth’s Next Supercontinent Cambrian Explosion: Life Diversification in the OceansMass Extinctions: The 5 Biggest Dying Events in HistoryThe History of Oxygen in Earth’s Atmosphere Is Vaalbara Earth’s First Supercontinent? Banded Iron Formation (BIF): How These Rocks Got Their StripesGreat Oxygenation Event: How Oxygen Filled the AtmospherePangea Fossils: Evidence of the Pangaea Supercontinent Was the Late Heavy Bombardment a Violent Stage in Earth’s History? Coal Formation: How Coal FormsFossil Records: A Journey into the Past Minerals and Rocks Metamorphic Rocks: Heat, Pressure and MetamorphismHow Do Sedimentary Rocks Form?How the Rock Cycle Recycles Earth’s CrustWhat Are the 3 Types of Rocks? Geology | Rock and Minerals How Was the Grand Canyon Formed? Like a stack of pancakes, younger rock layers pile on top of older layers. We use the law of superposition to reveal Earth’s age and Grand Canyon geology. Plate Tectonics 7 Major Tectonic Plates: The World’s Largest Plate Tectonics 10 Little-Known Facts About Volcanoes3 Types of Faults: Normal, Reverse and Strike-SlipTransform Plate Boundaries: Sliding Plate TectonicsPacific Plate: Movement and Direction of the Pacific Tectonic BoundaryConvergent Plate Boundaries: The Collision of Plate Tectonics Divergent Plate Tectonics: Boundaries that Pull Apart North American Plate: Tectonic Boundary Map and MovementsHow Does the Supercontinent Cycle Work?What Is Pangaea? Piecing Together the Supercontinent Jigsaw PuzzleContinental Drift: A Tale of Moving Continents and Plate TectonicsAntarctic Plate: The Drifting Continent of Antarctica African Plate and the East African Rift Zone Indo-Australian Plate: Tectonic Boundaries and MovementSouth American Plate: Tectonic Boundary and MovementEurasian Plate: Tectonic Boundary and MovementPlate Tectonic Types: Divergent, Convergent and Transform Plates Geologic Timeline Paleozoic Era: Diversification of Life (540 to 252 million years ago)Hadean Eon: The Formation of Earth (4.6 to 4.0 billion years ago)Human Timeline: How Long Have Humans Existed?The Cenozoic Era: From Dinosaur Extinction to Human EvolutionWhat Happened in the Archean Eon? [4.0 to 2.5 billion years ago]Proterozoic Eon: Eukaryotes to Multicellular Life (2500 to 541 million years ago) Geologic Timeline | Geology Earth Timeline: A Guide to Earth’s Geological History and Events [Infographic] Since Earth’s creation, oceans, continents and life have emerged. From evolution to extinction, here are the geological events and history of Earth timeline Volcanoes Geology | Volcanoes What is a Shield Volcano? The name “shield volcano” originated from its Roman shield-like shape. They are broad, flat and can stretch hundreds of miles wide like Mauna Loa in Hawaii.Lahar: Flowing Mud at VolcanoesWhat is a Stratovolcano (Composite Cone)?13 Parts of a Volcano: The Anatomy of Volcanoes3 Types of Volcanoes: Stratovolcano, Shield and Cinder ConeHow Volcanoes Form Igneous RocksPacific Ring of Fire: Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Plate TectonicsWhat is a Cinder Cone Volcano (Scoria Cone)?What’s the Difference Between Lava and Magma?