Earth Science


A Guide to Earth’s Lithosphere

Earth scientists compare the lithosphere to a thin, solid and brittle eggshell encasing our inner planet or a thick piece of wood that dries and breaks.


How To Define the Geosphere

It’s difficult to pinpoint an exact definition for the “geosphere” because it’s used in several different ways. But here are 2 ways to define the geosphere.


A Guide to the Magnetosphere

Earth’s magnetic field gives us a layer out in space called the magnetosphere. If you want to learn everything about magnetosphere, this is the complete guide.

Spheres of Earth

The 17 Spheres of Earth

How many spheres of Earth exist on Earth? If you count them all, you would get about 16 of them. This is the definitive guide to all 16 spheres of Earth.


What Is the Troposphere?

The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. It starts at ground level and extends upwards to about 13 km. All weather occurs in the troposphere.

What Color Is the Moon

What Color Is the Moon?

The color of the moon is mostly grey. And the lunar maria are dark grey. The 4 most dominant rocks are: mare basalts, breccia, anorthosite and regolith.

Mars Atmosphere Composition

Mars Atmosphere Compared to Earth

Carbon dioxide dominates Mars atmosphere. But Earth is rich in nitrogen and oxygen. Mars has a much thinner atmosphere. In fact, Earth is 100x denser.

How Big Is the Moon

How Big Is the Moon?

How big is the moon? It’s about 1/4 (27%) the size in diameter of Earth. Alternatively, you can think of the moon being about as wide as the United States.

Facts About Volcanoes

10 Little-Known Facts About Volcanoes

Ready to learn about volcanoes? From lightning that sparks at a volcano to its deadly hazards, we’re going to dive into 10 little-known facts about volcanoes


Lahar: Flowing Mud at Volcanoes

“Lahar” is an Indonesian word for mudflow at volcanoes. Lahar flows down volcanoes as a mix of mostly water, mud and rock debris (similar to wet concrete).