isostatic rebound

ISOSTATIC REBOUND: Glacial Depression

Isostatic Rebound: Glacial Depression Only about 10,000 years ago, ice covered all of Canada. Mountains made of ice pushed down on the continent with immense pressure. For example, the Hudson Bay may have depressed over […]


GLACIERS: Shaping Land By Moving Ice

Glaciers chisel away the land like a rake Like a rake scraping the dirt, glaciers leave a lasting impression on the land. During the last ice age, glaciers scraped away Canadian rock dumping most of […]

Grand Canyon Age

GRAND CANYON GEOLOGY: Rock Layers and Stratigraphy

Grand Canyon Geology: Rock Superposition Rocks tell us about colliding continents, meandering streams and volcanic eruptions. In the case of the Grand Canyon, the multi-layered strata provide insight to the age of the Earth. Like […]

Earth Age

EARTH AGE: How Old is Earth?

Earth Age: How Old is the Planet? Geologic time seems to be a Goliath that many of us David earth scientists wrestle with. Earth is a staggering 4.5 billion years old. Despite the challenges of […]

igneous rocks

How Volcanoes Form IGNEOUS ROCKS

Volcanoes are the foundation for igneous rocks. When volcanoes erupt, magma and lava spews out. After cooling and solidifying, they become igneous rocks. […]