The Supercontinent “Vaalbara”
We know that tectonic activity builds continents. But there’s still a heated debate whether or not continents existed as early as 3 billion years ago.
There are no definitive answers yet when the first supercontinent emerged.
But we do have evidence the first cratons are now located in Western Australia and South Africa.
This crust from the supercontinent Vaalbara dates back 2.7 to 3.6 billion years ago.
What is the origin of the supercontinent “Vaalbara”?
Why “Vaalbara”? The name Vaalbara comes from two cratons believed to have been combined about 3.1 billion years ago.
- KAAPVAL CRATON: The Kaapvaal craton now exists in South Africa.
- PILBARA CRATON: Pilbara craton is now situated in West Australia.
Hence, the theorized supercontinent Vaalbara incorporates parts of these cratons in its name.
So what is some of the evidence that supports Vaalbara as the first supercontinent?
What are the clues that Vaalbara is the first supercontinent?
When did the supercontinental cycle begin? The evidence that Vaalbara was the first supercontinent is mainly based on their sedimentary sequences and their magnetic orientation.
By analyzing the structural sediments of these two cratons in South Africa and Australia, scientists could look for resemblances.
What they found was that not only do the sedimentary sequences show similarities in both cratons, but the geochronological and paleomagnetic studies resemble each other.
By about 2.5 billion years ago, these landmasses are believed to have torn apart from each other at divergent plates. Their drift paths provide further evidence that they were once connected.
When did Earth’s crust cool?
In the early stages of Earth’s formation, heat flow was so intense it couldn’t provide the stability for continents to exist.
Eventually, the Earth cooled down and this was a necessary step for continents to form.
Because of the cooler climate in the Archean Eon, the lithosphere became more stable.
Also because plate tectonics is necessary for building continents, this means tectonic activity was present in this eon.
Earth’s crust cooled. And this allowed the formation of continents. This resonates with other major events like water basins forming.
Is Vaalbara Earth’s First Supercontinent?
Vaalbara, a proposed ancient supercontinent, is the subject of ongoing geological research and debate among scientists.
While there is evidence suggesting the existence of Vaalbara around 3 billion years ago, the precise details of its formation and configuration remain topics of investigation, and some geologists continue to explore the possibility of earlier supercontinents predating Vaalbara.
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